There is a vast number of items that can be looted. Here we will list (some of) them and what you can do with those looted items.
In Inventory or in the ... you can list items by their category.
Ship Parts (Cockpits, Engines, Wings, Shields and Weapons): you choose the equipment that best fits you best.
Resources: resources are needed to modify ship parts and to complete blueprints as they are the basic materials needed to construct whatever the blueprint reads. You can keep them for yourself or sell them to other users, who will gladly pay more than the NPC trader(s).
Blueprints: needed for crafting.
Others: not needed.